SALT Stabilization: How it Works

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I’ve Been Stabilized. What’s Next?

When your Loan-to-Value ratio (LTV) exceeds 90.91%, we stabilize your loan by converting all of your volatile assets into stablecoin (USDC).

At this point, you will notice that your USDC wallet reflects the total US Dollar value of your combined portfolio. Each collateral wallet balance will show $0. Don’t panic!

How Do I Convert Back to My Original Assets?

To get your original assets back, you will need to manage your LTV and restore the health of your loan to a safe state (83.33% LTV or lower). To do this, follow these steps.

  1. Navigate to the Loan Status page or click “Manage LTV” in the notification module on the dashboard.
Image for post 2. Manage your LTV by either depositing more crypto or making a one-time payment in the Manage LTV Module. Image for post

3. We recommend curing your LTV to a healthy state (<70%), but as long as you have managed it to 83.3% or below, you will be eligible to convert.

4. Navigate back to the Loan Status Page. You will see that your LTV has dropped, but you are still being held in Stabilization Mode.

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5. In the Manage LTV module, you will notice that you are now eligible to convert. Click “Convert Now” to convert back to your original assets or to a mix of any assets we accept as collateral.

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6. The convert tool will default to the percentages of your original collateral mix. You may edit this and convert back to a different collateral mix if you’d like.

7. Click “Next” to review the details of your conversion and then click “Convert Now” to confirm. Once confirmed, you will have successfully reverted back to your asset mix of choice.

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Still have questions about stabilization?

Please call our support team at +1 (720) 575–2272.

The Evolution of the Crypto Market and its Role in Asset-Based Lending

Originally published in ABF Journal

Cryptocurrency is a disruptor. Not only has it changed the way we conduct business, but it has changed the way we think. The most obvious manifestation of how cryptocurrency has disrupted our thought patterns is in the way we think about money — about who issues it, how to transact with it, how to put it to work and how to keep it safe. It also has changed the way we think about our government, our right to privacy and our financial freedom. What’s less obvious is how cryptocurrencies are disrupting the way we think about and participate in asset-based lending. The advent of Bitcoin catalyzed the creation of a myriad of cryptocurrencies, many of which became viewed as assets, yet at the time, there was no way for crypto investors to unlock the value of these assets without selling them. This is the problem SALT’s founders set out to solve in 2016 and in doing so successfully, made asset-based lending as we once knew it a thing of the past.

Creating a New Asset Class

As Bitcoin began to experience wider adoption following its release in 2009, it became clear that some investors were purchasing crypto to trade on a daily basis while others were choosing to invest long-term, viewing Bitcoin more as an asset than as a spendable currency. As more investors adopted this long position and began to think of cryptocurrencies as an asset class in their own right, the term “HODL” emerged in 2013 on a bitcoin-talk forum and has since become one of the most commonly used words in the crypto vernacular. This HODL culture has grown significantly over the years and has evolved to where investors are buying, selling and trading these assets not only for themselves but on behalf of others. This activity has taken the form of crypto portfolios and crypto funds, which offer access to this new asset class for individuals and allow them to diversify their portfolios while eliminating some of the overhead of learning how to purchase and safely hold cryptoassets. By providing a way to collateralize cryptoassets to secure a cash or stablecoin loan, SALT provides opportunities for individuals, businesses and capital providers to build and preserve wealth.

How to Lend Cryptoassets

As the first-ever crypto-backed lender, SALT has developed the technology and processes required to successfully lend against cryptoassets, giving borrowers a way to unlock the value of these assets without selling them. Take Bitcoin for example. It’s one of many cryptoassets we accept as collateral on our platform, yet it makes up more than 80% of the collateral securing our loan book.

What makes Bitcoin a strong form of collateral? The answer lies in Bitcoin’s combined characteristics. Like gold, Bitcoin is scarce, fungible, divisible, transferable and durable. It is also extremely liquid given it is traded on global exchanges every day. Additionally, as a decentralized asset, Bitcoin is highly secure. All of these properties make Bitcoin both a viable asset and a highly efficient form of collateral that has piqued the interest of some of the largest financial institutions in the world.

One thing to note is Bitcoin’s volatile nature, which can pose challenges specifically for the ABL market. However, SALT’s risk management technology effectively manages this volatility. Our technology includes real-time loan-to-value (LTV) monitoring, margin call and liquidation triggers, real-time notifications and the safekeeping of assets through institutional grade custody solutions. For example, our loan-to-value (LTV) monitoring system tracks the prices of assets 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, providing borrowers with the ability to monitor the health of their loan in real-time. If, during periods of heightened volatility, a borrower’s collateral declines in value and their LTV breaches our margin call threshold, we protect the borrower by issuing a margin call that prompts them to take action to restore the health of their loan. Actions borrowers may take include paying down principal or depositing additional collateral to recalibrate their LTV to an appropriate level (70%). If no action is taken and asset prices continue to decline, SALT has the ability and the right to liquidate collateral assets to preserve lender capital. The overcollateralized nature of our loans combined with our risk management technology and ability to liquidate assets enables us to protect the lender, and as a result, we’ve experienced zero losses of principal to date.

Choosing a Crypto-Backed Lender

SALT’s business model is attractive to crypto investors (e.g. traders and asset managers) and businesses (e.g. mining operations and exchanges) for a few reasons. First, we provide access to liquidity, offering loans ranging from $5,000 to the millions. Typical use cases include businesses seeking working capital to fund operational costs and large capital expenditures, or investors seeking leverage, diversification or risk management. Second, since our model is asset-based and requires overcollateralization, we do not rely on a borrower’s credit profile and can fund loans within 24 to 48 hours, assuming the borrower meets our strict AML/KYC requirements. Third, customers know their assets are safely and securely held with institutional-grade custody providers for the duration of their loan. Fourth, our loan process is straightforward and customizable. We allow borrowers to lend against a single cryptoasset or a portfolio of cryptoassets and offer flexible loan terms, including durations ranging from three to 12 months, LTVs up to 60% for individual loans or up to 70% for business loans, and competitive interest rates ranging from 5% to 12% depending on the borrower’s jurisdiction, loan amount and LTV. While we are no longer the only crypto-backed lender in the world, we are one of the few that incorporate a human element into our business model. Unlike completely automated lenders, SALT offers both phone and online support, and assigns each customer a loan support specialist at the time of loan origination. These human touches positively impact a borrower’s experience with the platform; they know that by choosing SALT, they will always have the option to speak with someone about their financial needs.

The Evolution of the Crypto Market and Tokenization

Since SALT’s founding in 2016, the crypto lending market has grown exponentially. According to a report from Credmark, the crypto lending market reached $8 billion in total lifetime loan originations as of Q4/19 and has since surpassed $10 billion following Q1/20. These numbers not only indicate the growing demand for liquidity among crypto holders but also the growing interest among capital providers to get involved in the crypto market. For example, we’ve witnessed an influx of both crypto native (BitGo Prime and Genesis Capital) and traditional financial institutions (Silvergate) that provide leverage and liquidity vehicles at the institutional level.

Another thing to consider regarding the evolution of the crypto market is that as the world becomes tokenized, the very definition of the term “crypto market” is changing. With the emergence of companies like Paxos and Harbor, we’re beginning to see increased tokenization of real-world assets like gold and real estate. At SALT we already accept Pax Gold (a gold-backed cryptoasset) as collateral on our platform and our vision for the future goes well beyond our current collateral scope.

The Role of Alternative Investments

As crypto becomes more widely accepted, a growing number of people are assessing their own risk profiles and determining the best way for them to participate in the crypto market. For those with lower risk profiles, the market has evolved in recent years to offer individuals or businesses indirect exposure to this new asset class. As previously mentioned, crypto portfolios and crypto funds are part of this evolution along with alternative investment companies like Cadence (portfolio company of Coinbase Ventures). Cadence is a securitization platform for private credit that grants access to exclusive high yield, short term investments traditionally reserved for institutions. In February 2020, we partnered with Cadence to offer prospective investors the opportunity to gain exposure to cash flows associated with a portfolio of underlying loans collateralized by cryptoassets. The first note of $500,000 was oversubscribed in five days and we have since worked with Cadence to issue $2.9 million in notes to investors to date. As more companies like Cadence provide structure, liquidity and indirect exposure to alternative asset classes like crypto, we expect to see even greater demand from investors seeking attractive risk adjusted returns.

Opportunities for Institutional Investors

There’s no doubt cryptocurrency has changed the way we think about asset-based lending. It has formed a new asset class and also has catalyzed the trend of broader tokenization — a trend that will inevitably expand the universe of collateral options and have a meaningful impact on the ABL industry. If you’re a decision maker at an institution and are interested in learning more, email [email protected] to discuss opportunities to build and preserve wealth in this rapidly evolving industry.

The Role of Federal Reserve: What It Can and Can’t Do

From business closures to event cancellations and stay-at-home orders, the coronavirus pandemic has had its way with the United States. Millions are unemployed, and millions of small businesses struggle to stay afloat in the punishing economic downturn.

The Federal Reserve, or “the Fed,” has been making headlines as it tries to limit the pandemic’s economic damage, including by lending $2.3 trillion that the government called for in its relief package, dubbed the CARES Act. This action has left many Americans wondering where the Fed got so much money, what the Federal Reserve can and can’t do, and what power the Fed has over our nation’s economy.

What Is the Federal Reserve, anyway?

It’s essential to define what the Fed is to understand its role in our economy. The Federal Reserve is America’s central banking system. Before the Federal Reserve, people panicked their bank would fail when a neighboring one closed its doors. Hordes of customers would run to withdraw their money, ultimately causing those banks to go belly up, too.

After a particularly terrible panic in 1907, Congress stepped in to create the Federal Reserve in 1913 through the Federal Reserve Act. The initial goal was to avoid these bank runs and provide banks with emergency funding. But today, the Federal Reserve System takes other measures to ensure the health and stability of the economy and a secure banking system.

How does the federal reserve work?

The Federal Reserve Act created a decentralized bank that functions without government financing or approval but still protects both public and private interests as a mixed organization.

It has three key entities:

1. Board of Governors

At the heart of the Fed is the Board of Governors, made up of seven officials appointed by the government and confirmed by the Senate. It acts as an independent federal agency, and its job is to direct the monetary policy — the money supply and interest rates. Its goal is to make sure we maintain a stable economy.

2. Reserve Banks

There are 12 Federal Reserve Banks spread throughout the U.S., each one having nine directors. Six directors are elected by commercial banks and three by the Board of Governors, protecting interests from both parties.

Reserve Banks are structured similarly to private corporations. They oversee member banks and carry out the monetary policy in their region. Reserve Banks act independently, but the Board of Governors supervises their actions.

These banks also have other vital roles like distributing currency to other banks, placing money into circulation, acting as a bank and fiscal agent for the U.S. government, and providing critical information about their local, national, and international economies to the Federal Open Market Committee.

3. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC):

The FOMC is a committee comprising the Board of Governors, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York President, and four members from the other 11 Reserve Banks, who serve for one-year terms.

The FOMC’s primary role is to determine whether the Federal Reserve should buy or sell government bonds, known as Open Market Operations (OMO), to maintain the economy’s stability. It also establishes a target federal funds rate, which is the interest rate banks charge one another for overnight loans.

Where does the Federal Reserve fit into the government?

The role of the Federal Reserve within the government can seem confusing since it has public and private aspects. The Fed is accountable both to Congress and the public and maintains transparency in all its operations.

Ultimately, the Fed is a product of the government because it was created by an act of Congress, which still oversees the whole system and can amend the Federal Reserve Act at any time.

But Congress created the Fed to work autonomously and to be shielded from political pressures by using a privatized structure for the Reserve Banks. It also keeps a hands-off approach by letting the three entities carry out their core responsibilities independently of the federal government.

Can anyone override Federal Reserve decisions?

There isn’t a formal legal power that can supersede the Fed’s monetary policy decisions. Still, the Federal Reserve Act allows the Treasury to “supervise and control” the Fed where jurisdictions overlap.

But the Treasury hasn’t needed to do this because a system of checks and balances keeps the Fed’s operations transparent and answerable to the public and Congress. Just because the Fed can influence the economy, doesn’t mean it doesn’t have to follow the rules.

Independent public accounting firms audit Reserve Banks annually. The Board of Governors also gets audited by its Office of Inspector General and an outside auditor. The Board of Governors annually publishes the results on its website.

The House of Representatives and the Senate hold the Fed accountable by requiring it to report twice a year on its monetary policy and economic decisions. Fed officials also deliver speeches throughout the year to the public so that everyone understands the reasoning for its decisions and actions.

Does the Federal Reserve print money?

If you’re a Bitcoiner, or you spend a decent amount of time on Twitter, you’ve most likely seen the “money printer go brrrr” meme that went viral in March of this year. It cropped up in response to the Fed’s announcement on March 12, 2020, that it would offer $1.5 trillion in short-term loans to banks to help combat “unusual disruptions” in financial markets as a result of the coronavirus. The meme, while more of a social commentary than an accurate depiction of the Fed’s responsibilities, expresses frustration regarding the government’s role in inflation and the devaluation of the US Dollar — as evidenced by the meme’s numerous likes and shares, many Americans share this same sense of frustration. While the meme is accurate in many ways, it unintentionally brings to light the common misconception that the Fed prints money. In reality, printing money is the responsibility of the U.S. Treasury. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing prints paper currency, while the U.S. Mint makes coins. The Treasury oversees both offices.

While it doesn’t print money in the literal sense, the Fed does buy cash as needed from the Bureau at cost to put into circulation, but the monetary base in circulation and at central banks typically stays the same.

The Fed manages the money supply by creating and destroying money. It swaps old, ragged bills for fresh ones or adds and deducts from digital balances. But it also manipulates the amount of money in circulation. The FOMC decides on whether to add or remove cash from the economy by buying or selling government bonds and other securities. This influences the amount banks will lend out and keep on deposit, which then affects interest rates.

That being said, where the misconception holds some truth is in the way the Fed puts more money into circulation; the Fed can’t print money, but it does have the power to essentially create money out of thin air. As a banker’s bank, it does so by making “large asset purchases on the open market and adding newly created electronic dollars to the reserves of banks.” In exchange, the Fed receives large amounts of bonds including US Treasury securities, mortgage‐​backed securities, corporate debt and other assets. Rather than paying for these bonds in cash or gold bars, the Fed instead credits the account of the bank selling the bonds so that digital money moves from one place into the other.

The process is like taking out a personal loan of $10,000 at the bank. The bank doesn’t give you a suitcase full of cash. What you get is a credit that shows up as some numbers on a screen, reflecting your new account balance.

Because the Fed operates digitally, it can create money with a few keystrokes and use it to purchase assets or lend money. On a televised interview with “60 Minutes,” Former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke said, “To lend to a bank, we simply use the computer to mark up the size of the account they have with the Fed. So it’s much more akin, although not exactly the same . . . to printing money, than it is to borrowing.”

The Fed did this when it promised to lend Americans $2.3 trillion, as called for in the CARES Act for economic relief and stability across the nation for those who were struggling because of the pandemic.

What can the Federal Reserve do or not do?

If the Fed can make money but not print it, what other actions is it able to take or is prohibited from taking?

What can the Federal Reserve do?

The Fed is an emergency lender for banks in financial distress, so it can lend money to failing banks to keep them afloat. But the Fed’s core responsibility is to manage the money supply, which has far-reaching effects on regulating the financial market.

It’s permitted to use four main tricks to change the amount of money in the economy:

1. Changing the reserve requirement

The Fed dictates what percent of deposits banks have to keep on hold. It usually ranges from zero to 10 percent and is currently set at zero because of COVID-19. The more banks have to keep on reserve, the less there is to go out into the market.

2. Changing interest rates on reserves

The Fed pays commercial banks interest rates on their required and excess reserves, a rule that went into effect in 2008. When the Federal Reserve wants to speed up the economy, it lowers the interest rate so that banks have less of an incentive to hold on to money.

3. Changing the discount rate

The Fed encourages and discourages banks from borrowing money from it by raising or lowering its lending interest rates. When the discount rate is low, banks borrow more to lend to each other and the public.

4. Conducting open market operations

The FOMC decides how many bonds to buy or sell. When it wants more money in the market, it buys these bonds from banks to put more money into their account. When it wants to slow down the economy, it sells the bonds to take away bank money.

This is the Fed’s most common tactic to influence the economy. For example, from 2008 to 2009, it bought over a trillion dollars of government bonds to inject money into the stumbling financial market. This lowered interest rates on short-term loans to almost zero percent.

But the recession went too deep. So, the Fed did something it hadn’t done before. It started buying long-term assets from banks in a process that’s known as quantitative easing (QE), boosting the money supply further and stimulating lending and investment.

What can’t the Federal Reserve do?

The Fed can only indirectly influence the nation’s economy. This means it does not have the power to take any of the following actions:

Set the federal funds rate

The federal funds rate is the amount of interest banks charge to lend their excess cash reserves overnight to each other. Banks frequently do this to meet the Fed’s reserve requirement.

While the Fed can’t set this number directly, the FOMC sets a target federal funds rate depending on what direction it wants the economy to go. Then, it works within what it’s permitted to do to influence banks and reach the benchmark rate.

Set the prime rate

Banks use the prime interest rate for commercial and consumer borrowing for things like credit cards and personal, car, and home equity loans. Banks often set the prime rate based on the Fed’s target federal funds rate.

Hike up mortgage and student loan rates

Mortgages and student loans are long-term assets whose rates are determined more by market-driven factors than FOMC decisions.

That said, the Fed purchased mortgage-backed securities to lower long-term rates on mortgages in 2008 so that banks wouldn’t need to borrow from each other to meet the reserve requirement. But these actions still affect federal funds rates significantly more than mortgage and student loan interest rates.

Use taxpayer money to fund its operations

The Fed doesn’t get any funding from taxpayers because its money comes from interest accruals on government securities and treasuries purchased through its OMO. There are other sources, too, such as foreign currency investments. After paying its expenses, the Fed turns any extra money over to the U.S. Treasury because it’s not operated for profit.

What’s the potential impact of the Federal Reserve’s powers on the economy?

Although the Fed can only work behind the scenes to stabilize the economy, it exerts a massive influence on its operations.

For example, the Fed can speed up or ease the economy by manipulating the money supply to increase or decrease consumer spending. It starts by influencing bank lending rates through selling and buying government bonds.

When banks have more excess reserves, there’s more to lend to the public, so interest rates are lower. Lower interest rates encourage people to borrow money, which is then spent on goods and services. More consumer spending generally means a better economy, while “even a small downturn in consumer spending damages the economy” and can even lead to a recession. Below is how the Fed’s actions impact specific aspects of the economy.

Interest rates

The Fed uses a trickle-down effect to influence interest rates. Remember, they can’t set federal funds or prime interest rates, but they can bend them to their will through OMO.

The Fed buying back government bonds from banks leaves more money for banks to play with while selling them means banks have to be more cautious about lending out their reserves. The economics of supply and demand shows excess cash in the market will drive down the interest rates banks charge to each other and the public, while a lack of money has the opposite effect.

The Fed also raises or lowers the discount rate and reserve requirements to change the interest rates commercial banks ultimately offer customers.

Inflation and deflation

When federal funds rates drop because of the Fed’s actions, prime rates usually drop with them. Consumers then borrow money for business and personal purposes to take advantage of lower interest rates. With greater amounts of money in their pockets, people spend more on goods and services, creating a spike in demand.

The larger demand pushes wages and costs higher to meet the production necessary to keep up with supply, causing a ripple effect. Prices increase across sectors, leading to reduced purchasing power. This is inflation and explains why a dollar today is worth less than a dollar last year.

Some annual inflation is good. It’s a sign the economy is doing well because consumers are spending. The Fed has a target core inflation rate of two percent. When inflation goes above or below the benchmark amount, the Fed steps in and works within its limits to move the needle toward inflation or deflation.

International relations

Although directing the U.S. monetary policy for the nation’s economic benefit is a crucial part of the Fed’s job, it also has foreign concerns.

Financial crises within our borders often have a global impact. The 2008 recession strained international markets because many countries have at least some assets and liabilities dominated by the dollar, causing them to sometimes borrow and lend in dollars.

To address the dollar scarcity, the Fed started swapping currencies with foreign economies in dire need of U.S. currency — over 583 billion dollars’ worth — at a predictable and fixed rate to keep struggling foreign banks afloat and prevent their economies from plummeting.

Sometimes the Fed also works with foreign central banks to set new banking regulations, as it did after the Great Recession.

Private bonds

As the pandemic continues to threaten the nation’s physical and financial health, the Fed is getting creative with its strategies, as it did in 2008 when it began buying long-term assets from banks.

Historically, the Fed has only purchased government securities. This time it’s buying 250 billion dollars’ worth of corporate bonds through exchange-traded funds (ETFs) to keep business up and running and workers employed. While this is good news in the short term, the long-term effects of this unprecedented move on the economy are uncertain.

The Federal Reserve: A system of the People, by the People, and for the People?

The Federal Reserve’s power and influence over our economy leaves many asking if it’s an unconstitutional entity. Though Congress takes a laissez-faire approach to the Federal Reserve, the system teeters between public and private domains.

The effect of its present monetary policy decisions on the future economy could determine which direction future reform sways. It could also decide if the century-old institution modernizes into a structure more accurately reflecting the concerns and voice of the people, and one maintaining greater transparency while ensuring the long-term economic stability of the nation.

July Update from SALT

In case you’re not a subscriber to our newsletter, we want to share some of our favorite highlights from July right here on our blog to help keep you up to date on all things SALT.

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How Financial Firms Navigate the Markets to Grow in Any Climate

SALT was featured on Adroll’s blog alongside Catch Benefits and Hippo Insurance. Learn how we’re navigating the markets and changing the way people interact with money in the full blog post here.

Read Adroll’s full blog post here


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ICYMI: SALT Announces Justin English as Chief Executive Officer

In case you missed it, we recently announced that Justin English has been named chief executive officer at Salt Blockchain Inc., parent company to SALT Lending. Co-presidents Rob Odell and Dustin Hull, who have been working together for the past six months to fill the CEO role and onboard English, will remain co-presidents and will continue to support SALT in their respective roles as chief product officer and chief financial officer.

Read the full announcement here.


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Creative Wealth Preservation with Blockchain Center

Our CPO Rob Odell joined Blockchain Center’s VR Crypto Mondays to talk with their CEO about crypto lending and creative ways to preserve your wealth.

Watch their full discussion here.


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Black Lives Matter

As operations at SALT carry on, it is not lost on us, as a company nor as individuals, that Black Americans continue to fight for racial justice. We are committed to hearing, learning from, and supporting our Black customers & communities in this fight for a more inclusive world.

Want to stay up-to-date on all things SALT? Signup for our monthly newsletter herehttps://cdn.forms-content.sg-form.com/76a45090-a050-11ea-8926-5efcf9d8f941

Questions about our products and offerings? Contact [email protected]

What to Expect When the Value of Your Collateral is on the Decline

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Your collateral is what protects your loan. It’s why SALT doesn’t need to perform income checks or credit checks when issuing a loan. But cryptocurrencies are volatile, so what happens if the value of your collateral begins to fall? Declining collateral value negatively impacts your Loan-to Value-Ratio (LTV) — that is the amount of outstanding principal still owed on your loan divided by the value of your underlying collateral: Outstanding Principal / Value of Collateral. LTV is the key metric SALT uses to determine the health of a loan. The lower the LTV, the healthier the loan. If the value of your collateral goes up, your LTV goes down. If the value of your collateral goes down, your LTV goes up. It’s that simple.

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Choosing your Loan-to-Value (LTV)

When choosing your LTV, the most important consideration is your risk tolerance. We offer starting LTV options of 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. If you go with a 30% LTV, you are choosing the safest level of overcollateralization, or cushion. With a 70% LTV, you won’t have to deposit as much crypto to begin with, but you’ll have the least amount of cushion. The higher the starting LTV, the higher the risk. Choose the LTV option that’s right for you.

What can you expect from us when your collateral declines in value and your LTV begins to rise? Lots of notifications.

If your collateral continues to go down in value, your LTV will steadily climb. As your LTV crosses certain critical thresholds (75%, 83%, 88%, and 90.91% as of the time of this writing) SALT’s robust monitoring and notification technology kicks in to help protect your loan.

  • At 75%, we give you a heads up, letting you know to monitor your loan more closely given your collateral is declining in value.
  • At 83%, we inform you that things are not looking so good, and you may want to consider paying back some of the loan or depositing extra collateral.
  • At 88%, we issue a final warning to let you know that if you don’t pay back some of the loan or deposit more collateral, you run a high risk of having your assets liquidated.
  • At 90.91%, SALT is contractually obligated to liquidate a portion of your collateral in order to prevent the lender from losing their investment.

After all, lenders wouldn’t be willing to lend the money in the first place if SALT couldn’t guarantee its safety.

How you respond to a rising LTV and warning notifications is up to you. Here are the current options:

  1. Pay back a portion of the loan — You can make a payment in USD via wire or ACH, or you can make a payment using a stablecoin instead. SALT currently accepts PAX, USDC and TUSD. With this option, you are choosing to lower your LTV by paying down the principal on your loan.
  2. Deposit more collateral — You can quickly and easily deposit additional collateral (it can be the same collateral your loan is backed by or a different collateral type that we offer). With this option, you are choosing to lower your LTV by increasing the total value of the underlying collateral.
  3. Do nothing — You can choose to ignore the warnings. If your collateral continues to decline in value, SALT may eventually be forced to liquidate a portion of your assets on the open market.

We’ve done the math to show you how each of these options impacts your assets, remaining principal, and required payment.

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Based on the above calculations, if you want to avoid any loss of assets, it’s best to respond as quickly as possible with options one or two. Otherwise, option three is available if that’s what you prefer. Either way it’s important to think through the options and know where you stand before your LTV crosses our liquidation threshold.

Keep tabs on your loan health from anywhere via the real-time LTV widget on your web dashboard or by logging into your account through our mobile app.

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It’s on us to monitor your loan health and keep you updated. It’s on you to take action (or not take action) when your collateral value is on the decline.

Crypto — Coming Into Its Own

By Jenny Shaver 

A look at indicators of industry maturity and assessing the right kind of investment risk.

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(This article is adapted from a keynote speech delivered at the April, 2019 Crypto Invest Summit.)

I often get asked, whether it’s by former colleagues, or people I meet at social events, or even my dad, “Why would people invest in crypto? It seems risky.”

Depending on your investment strategy, sure, it’s risky. But…it’s a different kind of risky than it was even two years ago.

So, what’s changed?

Crypto asset performance isn’t correlated to any other asset class. It doesn’t move with fiat inflation or commodities prices. It’s not tied to the performance of a company like a security. That inherently creates risk but also opportunity for significant gain. This is a risk that we as an industry weather and accept.

The perceived risk my dad is referencing has less to do with crypto asset volatility and more to do with the perception that the crypto industry reflects the lawless, undisciplined behavior and unbridled speculation akin to the caricature of the wild west.

This perception is inaccurate.

I was having a conversation with a colleague about this very topic and he said,

“Our industry isn’t in a state of chaos like The Wild West. Our industry is more analogous to The Space Race.”

John F. Kennedy said of The Space Race, “We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.”

Blockchain technology attempts to solve previously unsolvable problems. The complexity of the technology and the nascent nature of the regulatory framework, requires new and emerging expertise. It requires risk takers to set new precedents.

This pursuit has resulted in a pouring in of talent and capital which have given rise to increasing competition and meaningful industry advances. We are seeing this manifest via several indicators of industry maturity.

Broader Adoption

Despite the crypto winter, or bear market, or whatever we want to call 2018, we saw a nearly doubling of the amount of individuals who hold crypto assets. A survey published by Forbes suggests that crypto holders are skewing older and more affluent than previously thought.

UTXO analysis conducted by Delphi Digital suggests that most crypto holders who held a position longer than five years largely sold off their holdings, partly contributing to the downturn, but clearing the way for new investors seeking engagement with new types of products.

From an institutional perspective, traditional financial services and crypto financial services are converging. We are seeing validation of crypto assets in traditional companies incorporating crypto services or blockchain infrastructure.

Institutional adoption also extends to partnerships and service providers for crypto companies. Just in the past 12 months, I have seen an increased willingness of vendors and service providers to work with crypto companies. Companies who were saying “no” to providing services for us 12 months ago, are now actively trying to work with us.

Compliance

US-based crypto companies have made significant strides to create risk and compliance programs that are comparable to traditional financial institutions.

This includes a robust KYC/AML program, customer data protection standards, SOC compliance, compliance monitoring of blockchain addresses, and dedicated resources to oversee compliance programs.

As our industry attempts to navigate its purpose of removing barriers for transferring value, even regulatory barriers, compliance programs at this stage of our industry maturity, are a necessary step for broader adoption and mitigation of regulatory risk.

Insurance

Insurance has been a hot topic as of late because it’s a relatively new advancement in our industry. But it’s meaningful.

The fact that insurance providers are willing to underwrite affordable insurance policies for crypto-specific operations is a strong indicator that we as an industry are demonstrating the safety of holding crypto assets.

I urge investors to ask critical questions about the specifics of insurance programs — the coverage amount, incidents covered, and the claims and payout process and timeline.

The good news is that as our industry continues to prove itself, the competition amongst insurance underwriters will increase, which, in turn, will drive down costs.

Market Data Integrity

Our industry is dealing with our own data integrity issues just like any other high volume, high velocity industry.

Recognizing these gaps and the dependence on reliable market data to drive participation, there has been a surge of data research companies dedicated to improving the quality of market data.

The recent incident of BitWise calling out CoinMarketCap for overstating trading volumes, is a great example of our industry’s maturity in this area.

This is significant not just because companies like BitWise are expending resources to conduct due diligence on our industry’s leading data providers, but also because of CoinMarketCap’s acceptance of accountability to address the issue and improve their product.

It demonstrates that we are holding ourselves to a higher standard, and that investors will have increasingly accurate sources of information to make informed decisions.

Response to Scalability Challenges

JPMorgan announced earlier this year that it is investing in its Quorum blockchain infrastructure to facilitate payments in a more efficient manner using its dollar-backed JPM Coin.

It’s currently being piloted with a few institutional clients but is promising to revolutionize their payment processing.

To realize this potential will require blockchains to dependably support concurrent transactions at a scale that is not yet possible, or at least not yet largely practiced and tested.

Our industry is investing significant resources to solve this problem, and promising solutions are surfacing.

A second layer protocol solution, Lightning Network, is perhaps the most exciting advancement in the race for scalability.

For crypto to deliver on its potential of revolutionizing the transfer of value on a global scale, it must rise to meet the challenges of scale.

We’re working on it.

More Sophisticated Investment Products

What I see as the most exciting indicator of market maturity is the increasing diversification of product offerings.

Interest-bearing accounts are seeing promising early performance, futures and options are now available on select exchanges, as is trading on margin, and ETFs are on the near-term horizon.

What I have seen is an industry response to the unique nature of crypto assets and the needs of crypto holders. In crypto lending, for example, simply offering a crypto-backed, USD loan, does not address all market uses cases.

If 2018 has taught us anything it’s that we need products that drive market engagement in both bear and bull markets.

Our industry now offers several ways for investors to participate — directly through investing in crypto assets, less directly by offering fiat capital pipelines for interest-based products, or indirectly through investing in the growth of crypto companies and projects.

These options are allowing for a wider breadth of investor participation with varying risk appetites.

I return to the question, “Is crypto investing risky?”

When we empower a company like Charles Schwab to manage our wealth portfolio, we know there is some risk in the investment strategy but we don’t worry about them losing or mismanaging our money.

There are enough responsible companies in the crypto industry that can provide the same amount of assurance about the handling of your crypto assets. I encourage investors to seek out reputable companies and ask tough questions about their operations due diligence. Watch how companies respond to industry incidents like a hack or key compromise event. Our industry is still young and we’re still learning our vulnerabilities. The good companies will have a disaster recovery procedure that cure customer losses.

We have seen what happens when more resources are deployed to our industry. The result is more talent, innovation, and increasing sophistication that results in better products and better opportunities for investors.

Everyone wins.

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of SALT Lending.

Considerations for Filing Taxes as a Crypto Holder in 2020

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational and educational purposes only and does not constitute tax, legal or accounting advice. You should consult your own tax, legal and accounting advisors when filing your taxes.

While the tax deadline has been extended from April 15, 2020 to July 15, 2020 due to the COVID-19 crisis, it’s still a good idea to file as soon as possible, especially for those taxpayers who are expecting a refund. For crypto holders, it’s important to note that for the first time ever, this year every tax-paying American will be getting quizzed explicitly on their crypto activity. Indeed, the 2020 season will mark the first time the following question appears right at the top of the 1040 tax form:

“At any time during 2019, did you receive, sell, send, exchange, or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency?”

This year however, federal tax forms ask about your bitcoin and other cryptocurrency activities, the latest move to more directly specify details for cryptocurrencies. The IRS is focusing on those who may be underreporting their crypto transactions or not reporting them at all.

What does this new sentence in your tax form this year really mean, and how should it impact how you report crypto in your 2019 taxes? To help understand, we asked SALT experts, along with our partners and friends at Node40TaxBitBlox and Friedman LLP.

Know Your Cost Basis

The first thing to know is that one is taxed on profit — the key figure to find out is the gain number. The most recent set of guidance from the IRS was released in October 2019 and it included a few methods of “cost basis assignment” mentioned therein. For those who aren’t accountants, this means one of a few ways to track profits and losses. Know your cost basis and what the IRS deems taxable. Most importantly, know your “gain number.”

Cost basis means the price at which you initially acquired an asset. For example, if you hold one BTC today, which you previously purchased at $9,000, and the price today is $11,000, the cost basis is that acquisition price of $9,000. So, the unrealized gain number (without selling) and the realized gain number (if you were to sell) is the net between today’s price and the cost basis, meaning in this case $2,000.

Cost basis can also mean the fair market value of the asset on the date of acquisition. For example, you received one BTC from work as compensation for services on 1/1. The value of BTC on 1/1 is $9,000. Later when you sell one BTC at $11,000, the then fair market value of $9,000 would be the cost basis, and you would realize $2,000 gain. The fair market value can be determined using a reasonable method, such us prices on any third-party independent trading platforms, as long as the same method is applied consistently for all your crypto transactions.

Loan collateral does not count as a transaction

For SALT customers, it’s important to know that your crypto held as collateral for a cash or stablecoin loan does not count as a taxable transaction unless your collateral is liquidated; a liquidation is a taxable event. If your collateral increases in value during the course of your loan term, this does not count as a gain or taxable action unless the collateral is sold. According to Friedman LLP, should you have a business loan with SALT, take note that business interest is deductible and subject to limitations (generally 30% of adjusted taxable income if the business had more than $25 million gross receipts). While interest on personal loans is generally not deductible, it may be deductible if you are self-employed and you use the loan for your own business or if you are employed but you use the loan to make other investments that generate income (the loan then becomes a business loan or investment loan).

First-In-First-Out (FIFO)

First-In-First-Out (FIFO) is the default accounting method. Your cost (the price at which you purchase a crypto asset) is calculated at the initial purchase date. So, if you buy a Bitcoin in January, another in March, and sell one in June, the “cost” isn’t from March, but January. The first “in” is the first purchasing transaction. First “out” is the first one sold. With digital currency the date of purchase and sale are clear in the coins and tokens themselves, making reporting much easier.

The aforementioned guidance from the IRS clarifies how to calculate your gain number.

By way of example: assume you purchase one BTC on 1/1 for $10,000, one BTC on 2/1 for $15,000, and then sell one BTC on 3/1 for $12,500 — your taxable gain or loss using first-in-first-out is computed by taking $12,500 of proceeds less your cost basis of $10,000 (which comes from the earliest purchase of BTC). This results in a $2,500 taxable gain.

While FIFO is the default method, the IRS makes it clear that the Specific Identification method can also be used if a taxpayer can document unique digital identifiers such as a private or public key. The acceptance of specific identification is favorable for taxpayers, as it allows taxpayers to assign their highest cost basis lots first, which in return minimizes their tax liability.

More details on this specific topic can be found over at Taxbit’s blog here.

Be Careful Using 1099s from Exchanges

If you have been buying crypto through exchanges, the exchange may have sent you a 1099-K or 1099-B form. Even if you did not receive these documents, all the 1099 methods of calculating income are still valid for you. The exchange calculates and reports gross proceeds, meaning that it is on the taxpayer to provide information on the cost they paid to acquire said assets and reported in the capital gains section, otherwise known as IRS 8949.

Specifically, form 1099-K reports gross proceeds, which the IRS interprets as income. The number reported on form 1099-K is not counted as income however, as cryptocurrency trading carries cost basis and is to be reported in the capital gains and losses section of a taxpayer’s tax return. Form 1099-B reports cost basis when available and makes it easier for you as a taxpayer to complete your required IRS 8949. Some cryptocurrency exchanges may not send you anything at all. Regardless of which form you receive or don’t receive, your responsibility as a taxpayer is to use the information to complete your IRS 8949, which reports your capital gains and losses.

Verify the Data You Receive

The crypto industry is still relatively new and while the exchanges and trading technology may have some advanced reporting features built in, the institutions built around that technology are still new. With traditional securities, there is a clearinghouse, a broker, and well-established financial statements that make it easy to determine your taxes. With cryptocurrency, many of the exchanges are still in the process of refining external reporting standards. This means that, as a user, the level of completeness in reporting expected from NYSE cannot possibly be replicated by virtually any new institutions.

According to data by NODE40, the reports generated by cryptocurrency exchanges will be incorrect for about 80% of cryptocurrency traders. We can’t fault the exchanges because there is simply no way for them to determine the cost basis of the assets you’ve been moving around. For this reason, it’s important to consider using a third-party platform that can calculate the gains and losses on your cryptocurrency as you move it from exchange to exchange or wallet to wallet.

Conclusion: Educating Ourselves is Essential

Crypto accounting and tax reporting can be daunting and complex, which is why staying engaged with news and trends is essential to understanding the evolving landscape of crypto taxation. Especially in the U.S, the IRS is taking more steps to introduce greater guidance and clarity. But without proper education and trained professionals, navigating crypto tax can be tough.

Tax preparers and investors rely on 1099 forms in traditional markets — crypto is no different. Without it, the burden of responsibility shifts to the investor, requiring them to keep track of all of their crypto activity for the year. This includes tracking every crypto-related transaction, like fair market value based on the date of purchase or sale of assets.

All of this information is vital for preparers to determine cost basis and properly calculate gains and losses. Therein lies the primary challenge. Some crypto accounting and management platforms have emerged to solve this growing industry need for smarter solutions. Industry giants need reliable, accurate and smart tools.

Because crypto remains a new field and exchanges are widespread around the world, not all exchanges report in the same method. This is why the savvy users will double check the work of the exchange, a task for which there are now new tools available. These errors can have a massive tax impact, particularly when it comes to tracking the cost of acquisition of the asset over time. Luckily there are tools that exist that can provide traders and crypto entrepreneurs with intelligent support.

Taxes are a part of life. This year hundreds of millions of Americans will be reminded explicitly of the existence of digital assets — a good thing for the industry that will drive greater awareness and adoption of cryptoassets. If you’re already a crypto hodler or trader, diligence is key to successfully filing your 2019 taxes this year. Whether you use a third-party tool or rely solely on exchanges to track the movement of your assets, it’s crucial that you know your gain number and verify its accuracy, that you review the IRS guidelines, and that you use trusted sources to educate yourself on what to report and how to go about it.

SALT Now Offers Loan-to-Value (LTV) Options Up to 70%

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We have increased our range of Loan-to-Value (LTV) options, allowing you to tailor the loan product that is right for you. In addition to our existing 30%, 40% and 50% LTV options, you can now select up to a 60% or 70% LTV, allowing you to unlock even more value from your crypto holdings.

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While starting your loan at 70% LTV means you need less loan collateral to get started, it may lead to higher risk for you as the borrower. This is why SALT has been focused on creating tools that allow you to manage the risks associated with your loan based on your own tolerance.

● Customizable notification system — When you sign up for a SALT account, you automatically receive email alerts about your account activity. From our website or mobile app, you can customize your notifications even further by opting in to calls, texts and/or push notifications.

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● Loan-to-Value (LTV) monitoring system — This near real-time system reports your loan health (in LTV) and portfolio value through the life of your loan. Even when you aren’t watching your portal for updates, our automated notification system helps keep you up-to-date via calls, texts and emails so you’re alerted during volatile market conditions.

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● Mobile app — Our mobile app allows you to register for an account, monitor your collateral and loan status, and deposit or withdraw assets.

Download the app for iOS and Android.

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● TrueUSD and USDC — With the recent addition of these stablecoins to our accepted collateral types, you can stabilize your LTV at anytime by transferring TrueUSD, USDC, or a combination of the two directly to your account — even on nights, weekends and holidays.

Year in Review 2018

2018 was quite the year for SALT.

Between two public product launches, 32 event appearances, and the addition of new collateral types and jurisdictions, there’s no doubt we’ve accomplished a lot this year. When reflecting on how we did it, a few factors come to mind.

For one, we drank a ton of coffee (not literally but it was a lot) and even more La Croix. We also communicated a lot more — not only with each other, but with our community.

And most importantly, we grew. Not just in terms of our jurisdictions and team members but also in terms of our brand and vision.

For SALT, 2019 will be the year of expansion.

We know that crypto-backed lending is at our core and we’re proud of the business we’ve built. As we continue to maintain and grow our lending business, we’re also excited to expand our financial offerings to include products beyond lending.

On top of that, we believe in fostering the adoption of blockchain technology and that means making it more accessible. Right now, the use of this emerging technology seems to be limited to those who are experts in the blockchain space. We’re solving for this by developing a suite of applications that will enable businesses of all sizes — whether they are already in the blockchain space or are looking to enter it — to leverage this technology in a way that benefits them and their customers.

In 2019 we are focused on further building out these two components of the business and we’re excited for what that means for our company, you, and the future of finance.

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California, Here We Come

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We’ve been California dreamin’ for a while now and guess what? It’s no longer a dream. That’s right. As of today, we’re officially checking into the Hotel California.

310? 415? It doesn’t matter. We love L.A. And we love the Bay. And it’s not just because the West Coast has the sunshine and the best waves. We surf, too, but like, on the Web.

Whether we’re driving down the 101 or the 99 (we’re here for you CenCal), at SALT we’re always cruising. But mostly we keep on growing. Between the addition of D.C. last week and California this week, we’re making Blockchain-Backed Loans™ accessible to a lot more businesses and a lot more people — in California’s case, 39 million more people.

We’ve heard somewhere before that you all know how to party… in that case, we’re hella stoked to serve you.

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Visit saltlending.com to apply for a loan.

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